A. Beginning of the Industrial Design: Great Britain and Germany
Industrial Revolution :: early 19th century; patternmaker = designer
Journal of Design - by Henry Cole; design should encompass more than applied ornament; knowledge of manufacturing processes and materials.
Great Exhibition - decorative extravagance of Victorian design - Crystal Palace
Arts and Crafts Movement - John Ruskin, William Morris, Gustav Stickley, thought machine production degrading to both workers and consumers.
Wiener Werkstatle - Viennese group; similar to Arts and Crafts Movement.
Frank Lloyd Wright - ‘The Art and Craft of the Machine’; basic principles of modern industrial design; future designers create prototypes for machine production.
Deutscher Werkbund - Hermann Muthesius
AEG (German General Electric); Peter Behrens, denounce Art Nouveau for a spare abstract neoclassicism; products, lighting fixtures, fans, advertising, graphics, and the firm’s overall ‘corporate image’.
Bauhaus - Walter Gropius, union of art and industry; other figures: Herbert Bayer, Marcel Breuer, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Laszio Moholy-Nagy, and Wilhelm Wagenfeld- [1933 - disbanded by Nazi]
B. Design Profession: USA
US comsumer society emerges: commercial artist, advertising, illustrators
Design business practice common; independent consultants
New York World’s Fair - visual coherence and social harmony; Utopian dream
C. Postwar Europe
Council of Industrial Design; stifled creativity
Swiss design: Armin Hofmann, Emil Ruder, Kunstgewerbeschule Basel
Bauhaus tradition to Hochschule für Gestaltung at Uml. Max Bill and Tomas Maldonado; Dieter Rams at Braun AG.
Pop art; Pentagram Design: Colin Forbes, Theo Crosby
Scandinavian designer: Alvar Aalto
Italian designer: Ettore Sottsass, Memphis group
Post-Modernism: Wolfgang Weingart, Steff Geissbuhler, Odermatt & Tissi
D. Contemporary American Graphic Design
MOMA, promote good design, refugees Gropius, Mies, Breuer; New Bauhaus, Chicago, ID-IIT; Yale University: Alvin Eisenman, Paul Rand, Herbert Matter, Norman Ives
The New York School: Paul Rand, Alexey Brodovich, Henry Wolf, Herb Lubalin, George Lois
Corporate graphics: Olivetti, CBS, CIBA, IBM, Chase, Mobil, Mexico Olympic
New Wave: April Greiman, Kenneth Hiebert, Paula Scher
Micro processor (1984 - Apple Computer, MacWrite, MacPaint)
Internet: Mosaic -> Netscape
Source: Michael Kroeger